# What I didn’t know about Ruby Numbers

I’ve always had this feeling that while learning Ruby and Rails, there were tons of little notions that I didn’t really understood. I’m used to write things in order to learn them so here is a series of short articles about what I didn’t know.

**The Numeric Class**

In Ruby, what we call “numbers” are all objects from the **Numeric** class as we can see on the following diagram :

**Fixnum and Bignum**

Fixnum are representing small integers and Bignum are representing big integers. As the doc says : *“Holds **Integer** values that can be represented in a native machine word (minus 1 bit).”*

**Since ruby 2.4**, Fixnum and Bignum are unified under the Integer class, so depending on your ruby version, you will get a different behavior.

# Before Ruby 2.4

>> 3.class

=> Fixnum

>> 30000000000000.class

=> Bignum# After Ruby 2.4

>> 3.class

=> Integer

>> 30000000000000.class

=> Integer

**Use underscores to improve your readability**

You can use underscores to get more readable numbers when they reach one thousand.

>> 1_000 + 1

=> 10011_350_800 - 1_000_000

=> 350800

**Divmod vs Modulo operators**

As the doc specifies, Divmod is a method that *returns an array containing the quotient and modulus *obtained by dividing num by numeric.*, *in other words :

>> 13.divmod(3)

=> [4, 1]# The quotient 4 means that we get 4 times 3 in 13 (4 * 3 = 12) and it rests 1 (12 + 1 = 13).

Using the modulo operator (%) with positive values is pretty easy to understand as it gives you the rest of a division :

>> 13%3

=> 1

>> 13.modulo(3)

=> 1# it is equivalent to 13.divmod(3)[1]

but using it with negative values can be **really complicated**. I am not going to explain it deeper here and I prefer to give you some resources that will do it far better than me :

Why is the behavior of the modulo operator (%) different between C and Ruby for negative integers?

Exploring the difference between modulus and remainder in Ruby’s Numeric class

# Floats are not exact …

Every developer knows that float are decimal numbers but I didn’t know that floats were *inexact real numbers**.*

`>> 4.0 - 3.1 == 0.9`

=> false

>> 4.0 - 3.1

=> 0.8999999999999999

This is due to the limited number of bytes that can store a Float, so sometimes a Float is not exactly equals to what you think… And here comes the BigDecimal class.

# … but BigDecimals are

*BigDecimal** provides arbitrary-precision floating point decimal arithmetic.* In some precise cases, you will need to use BigDecimal in order to overcome the inexactitude of floats.

`>> require 'bigdecimal'`

=> true

>> BigDecimal('4.0') - BigDecimal('3.1') == 0.9

=> true

**Rationals**

The docs says that *a rational number can be represented as a pair of integer numbers: a/b (b>0), where a is the numerator and b is the denominator. *In other words, rationals are similar to fractions.

`>> (2/3).class`

=> Integer

>> (2/3r).class

=> Rational

>> 1.5.to_r

=> (3/2)

You can run all the “+”, “ /”, “-” and “*” operations between Rationals

`>> (1/8r) + (7/8r)`

=> (1/1)

# The last word

I know there are lots of other concepts around the Numeric class but that’s all for this article, feel free to improve my explanation in the comments, I might add more concepts here in the future 👀

👉 I’am also the maker of stanza.dev that helps developers to learn coding concepts faster. Feel free to have a look 👨💻 👩💻

Cheers ✌️